Diet quality and nutrient density in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Influence of socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional assessment in the PREDIMED-Plus study


Por: Cano-Ibáñez N, Gea A, Ruiz-Canela M, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Schröder H, Navarrete E, Romaguera D, Martínez JA, Barón-López FJ, López-Miranda J, Estruch R, Riquelme-Gallego B, Alonso-Gómez Á, Tur JA, Tinahones FJ, Serra-Majem L, Martín V, Lapetra J, Vázquez C, Pintó X, Vidal J, Daimiel L, Gaforio JJ, Matía P, Ros E, Fernández-Carrión R, Díaz-López A, Zomeño MD, Candela I, Konieczna J, Abete I, Buil-Cosiales P, Basora J, Fitó M, Martínez-González MA and Bueno-Cavanillas A

Fecha de Publicación: 01/04/2020
Resumen:
Background: Socioeconomic disparities and lifestyle factors are likely to determine the overall quality of the diet. In addition, overeating is compatible with inadequate micronutrient intake and it can lead to adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess adequacy of dietary nutrient intake and to investigate the influence of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on nutrient density in a large primary cardiovascular prevention trial conducted in healthy participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) to assess the cardiovascular effects of an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (PREDIMED-Plus). Methods: Baseline cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus trial with 6646 Spanish participants (aged 55-75 years in men and 60-75 years in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS. Energy and nutrient intake (for 10 nutrients) were calculated using a validated 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and nutrient density was estimated dividing the absolute nutrient intake by total energy intake. The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated according to dietary reference intakes. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to examine associations between socioeconomic status or lifestyle factors and nutrient density. Results: A considerable proportion of the screened participants showed a deficient intake of vitamins A, D, E, B-9, calcium, magnesium and dietary fibre. Inadequate intake of four or more of the ten nutrients considered was present in 17% of participants. A higher nutrient density was directly and significantly associated with female sex, higher educational level and a better adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Lifestyle factors such as non-smoking and avoidance of sedentary lifestyles were also independently associated with better nutrient density. Conclusions: Patients with MetS, despite being overweight, exhibited suboptimal nutrient intake, especially among men. Low nutrient density diet can be largely explained by differences in socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. These results highlight the importance of focussing on nutritional education in vulnerable populations, taking into account nutrient requirements. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

Direcciones
Cano-Ibáñez N: Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública(CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada, IBS GRANADA, Granada, Spain
Gea A: Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Medical School, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdisNa), Pamplona, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain
Ruiz-Canela M: Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Medical School, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdisNa), Pamplona, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain
Corella D: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Salas-Salvadó J: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department de Bioquímica I Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició, Reus, Spain; Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Reus, Spain; University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, Nutrition Unit, Reus, Spain
Schröder H: CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública(CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas Municipal d'Investigació Médica (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain
: CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública(CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; ISABIAL - EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA NUTRICIÓN, Alicante, Spain
Romaguera D: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Martínez JA: Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdisNa), Pamplona, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Nutritional Genomics and Epigenomics Group, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Barón-López FJ: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Public Health, University of Málaga-IBIMA, Málaga, Spain
López-Miranda J: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Córdoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofía University Hospital, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain
Estruch R: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Internal Medicine, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Riquelme-Gallego B: Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Alonso-Gómez Á: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, OSI ARABA, University Hospital Araba, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
Tur JA: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Research Group on Community Nutrition & Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Tinahones FJ: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain
Serra-Majem L: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Martín V: CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública(CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, León, Spain
Lapetra J: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Family Medicine, Research Unit, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
Vázquez C: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Endocrinology, Fundación Jiménez-Díaz, Madrid, Spain
Pintó X: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
Vidal J: Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain
Daimiel L: Nutritional Genomics and Epigenomics Group, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Gaforio JJ: CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública(CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Olivar y Aceites de Oliva, Universidad de Jaén, Jaén, Spain
Matía P: Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid, Spain
Ros E: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain
Fernández-Carrión R: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Díaz-López A: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department de Bioquímica I Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició, Reus, Spain; Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Reus, Spain; University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, Nutrition Unit, Reus, Spain
Zomeño MD: Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas Municipal d'Investigació Médica (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain; Human Nutrition Unit, Blanquerna-Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain
Candela I: CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública(CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; ISABIAL - EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA NUTRICIÓN, Alicante, Spain
Konieczna J: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Abete I: Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdisNa), Pamplona, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Buil-Cosiales P: Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Medical School, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Atención Primaria, Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea, Pamplona, Spain
Basora J: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department de Bioquímica I Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició, Reus, Spain; Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Reus, Spain; University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, Nutrition Unit, Reus, Spain
Fitó M: CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas Municipal d'Investigació Médica (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain
Martínez-González MA: Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Medical School, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdisNa), Pamplona, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition, Boston, USA
Bueno-Cavanillas A: Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública(CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada, IBS GRANADA, Granada, Spain
ISSN: 02615614





CLINICAL NUTRITION
Editorial
CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE, England, Estados Unidos America
Tipo de documento: Article
Volumen: 39 Número: 4
Páginas: 1161-1173s
WOS: 000527854300022
ID de PubMed: 31101439

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